Tag: dental health

Types of Intraoral X-Rays

Do you have dental problem that is very minute and is not diagnosed with the normal X-ray? Then, you need to make an intraoral X-ray of your mouth. Through this intraoral X-ray, it is very easy to identify various dental problems from different aspects of the teeth. This X-ray film gives out the detailed image of inside mouth and helps in finding cavities, teeth problems and condition of the teeth etc. To identify these aspects, there are various types of intraoral X-rays that are listed below.

Bite-wing X-rays
These X-rays are called as bite-wing, because while taking the X-ray, you need to bite on a wing shaped device that holds the film in place. These X-rays show the details of the upper and lower molars (back teeth), and also the teeth in-front of the molars. Usually, the dentist will take one or two bite-wing X-rays on each side of the mouth. Here, each bite-wing will show the teeth from the crown to the level of supporting bone. It mainly highlights the crowns of the back teeth. These X-rays are mainly used for diagnosing the tooth decay and also the changes in the bone density, which are caused by the gum diseases. They also help in determining the soundness of fillings and proper fitment of the crown.

Periapical x-rays
These X-rays look similar to the bite-wing X-rays but, this is mainly used for highlighting one or two teeth at a time (or) a portion of teeth of upper or lower jaw. It shows the entire length or full dimensions of the teeth from crown to the end of the root, till where the teeth is anchored in the jaw. These X-rays are used for detecting any kind of abnormalities in root and its surrounding bone structure. Based on your oral health, the dentist may recommend you either for the bite-wing X-rays or else for the periapical X-rays.

Occlusal X-rays
These X-rays are large when compared to most of the X-rays. Each X-ray will reveal nearly the full arch of the teeth either in the upper jaw or lower jaw. These X-rays highlight the teeth development and placement in children. This X-ray is made by placing a film on the occlusal surface of one of the arches.

These are various types of intraoral X-rays taken to see the different aspects of the teeth. These X-rays are very helpful to have a detailed look of your teeth and to identify the minute teeth problems.
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Types of Jaw Disorders

Normally jaw is formed by the set of bones that hold teeth. Jaw consist of two parts. Upper part is called maxilla and lower part is called mandible. The changes in the positioning of jaw or misalignment of jaw is called jaw disorders.

There are several types of jaw disorders that include:

  • Temporo mandibular joint disorder (TMJ disorder)
  • Prognathism
  • Malocclusion
  • Bruxism

Temporomandibular Joint Disorder
Temporomandibular joint is the joint where mandible meets the skull. Misalignment of jaw is due to the dis-functioning of temperomandibular joint. There are three categories of TMJ disorders. It includes:

  • Myofacial pain: Discomfort or pain in the muscle involves in the control jaw movement.
  • Internal disarrangement of joint: It involves in the dislocation of jaw, injury to the condyle.
  • Arthritis: Inflammation of joins that affects the temporomandibular joint.

Prognathism
Prognathism is the condition in which protrude of either of the jaws beyond a predetermined imaginary line in the coronal plane of the skull.

  • Alveolar prognathism: Protrusion of the portion of the maxilla where teeth are located in the upper jaw. It is due to the habit of thumb sucking or oral thrushing.
  • Maxillary prognathism: It is also called over bite. In this, upper jaw protruding beyond the lower jaw causes upper front teeth to overlap on lower front teeth.
  • Mandibular prognathism: It is also called under bite. In this, lower jaw protruding beyond the upper jaw causes lower front teeth to overlap on upper front teeth.

Malocclusion
It is the misalignment of teeth between the two dental arches. Improper fitting of upper and lower teeth when biting and talking.

  • Cross bite: Upper teeth fit into the wrong side of the lower teeth.
  • Transposition: Eruption of tooth in another tooth position.
  • Open bite: In this upper and lower teeth do not overlap and creates straight opening into the mouth. This can be treated by wearing braces, removal of teeth if over crowding of teeth takes place. If it cannot be treated by the above methods, it can be treated by undergoing surgery called orthognathic surgery.

Bruxism
Bruxism is the excessive clenching or grinding of teeth and jaw and leads to jaw pain. This is due to the non functional repetitive contact of upper and lower teeth.

There are two types of bruxism:

  • Sleep bruxism is the clenching and grinding of teeth or jaw during sleep.
  • Awake bruxism is the clenching of teeth while awake.

Bruxism can be treated by wearing mouth guards and night guards to prevent clenching and grinding of teeth and jaw during day or night time.
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How Gum Problems can be Treated?

Gum disease is a condition in which inflammation of the gum tissue and the loss of bone that supports the teeth takes place. This is mainly due to the formation of plaque. The formation of plaque is called gingivitis and if it is untreated it becomes hard and spreads to all over the mouth and destruction of gum tissue leads to periodontitis.

Treatment for gum diseases
There are several ways to treat gum diseases depends on the severity. It can be treated by:

  • Oral hygiene: Maintaining oral hygiene is the best way to treat gum diseases. Maintain oral hygiene by brushing twice daily, flossing regularly, using tooth paste that contains fluoride.
  • Medications: Medications like antibiotics, pain killers and mouth washes are used to treat gum problems along with surgery or cleaning methods.
    • Antibiotics: Antibiotics are available in tablet and gel forms. Antibiotics like metronidazole and amoxycillin are recommended for short term treatment of gum diseases. Antibiotic gels are used to apply over the gums after root planning and deep scaling.
    • Pain killers: Pain killers like paracetamol and ibuprofen are recommended to reduce pain.
    • Mouth washes: Mouth washes containing chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide are used to rinse mouth. Some mouth washes need to be diluted with water before rinsing mouth.
  • Deep cleaning methods: Plaque and tartar is removed by the dentist using deep cleaning method. The methods include deep scaling and root planning. Scaling means scraping the tartar on the teeth and then polishes the teeth. Root planning is deep cleaning under the gums to avoid bacterial growth. Local anesthesia is given to numb the area. Loss of blood, swelling for sometime, discomfort takes place in deep cleaning method. This can be avoided by using laser to remove plaque and tartar.
  • Surgical treatment: Gum diseases can be treated by surgery if the problem is severe. Surgery is done to reduce the deep pockets below the gum line. The surgical treatments include, flap surgery and bone and tissue grafting.
    • Flap surgery: In flap surgery, the infected gum tissue is removed and repositioned and shaping of the gum tissue to support teeth. The surgical procedure vary depending on the severity of gum disease. In this the gum tissue is lifted up from the teeth and cleans the bone to remove plaque and then positioned in the place and sutured to minimize the pocket depth.
    • Bone and tissue grafting: This method is used to regenerate the lost gum tissue and bone which supports the teeth. In bone grafting, the lost bone is replaced with artificial or natural bone. Guided tissue regeneration is a technique used along with bone grafting. In this a small mesh like material is placed between the bone and gum tissue and allows the tissue to grow along with the bone. In tissue grafting, the lost tissue is replaced with the tissue taken from the other parts of the mouth or synthetic material is used to cover the exposed teeth.

Effects of Smokeless Tobacco on Oral Cancer

Oral cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the oral cavity and leads to the development of tumors. Consumption of tobacco is one of the main causes of oral cancer. Tobacco is used in many ways such as smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco or its products. All the tobacco products have the same risk of oral cancer. People who use smokeless tobacco are at high risk as well. We’ll discuss here the effects of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer

Smokeless tobacco
When tobacco is chewed or used directly without burning is called smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco is available in various forms.

Chewing tobacco is obtained from the loose leaves or twists of tobacco. It is cut into small pieces and are placed in between the cheeks and gums. Then, the nicotine in the tobacco gets absorbed into the tissues of oral cavity.

Snuff is the fine powered tobacco available in packets. Its available in either dry form or moist form. Dry powder is taken by inhaling through nose. Moist form is taken through mouth and is spit free.

Dissolved tobacco are designed as lozenges. Theses are available as sweet candies. These are dis solvable in mouth.
Most people become addicted to smokeless tobacco due to economic problems, stress and local life style.

Harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco
Smokeless tobacco contains 28 harmful chemicals. Nicotine in the tobacco gets absorbed into the oral tissue and irritates the tissue. Nitrosamines, these are formed during growing, forming and aging of tobacco.

How smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer
Smokeless tobacco is carcinogenic. It contains chemicals that can make changes in the DNA in cells present in oral cavity, which leads to the development of oral cancer. Chewing smokeless tobacco or using snuff containing nicotine gets absorbed into the tissue in oral cavity and irritates the tissue. The another cancer causative chemical in smokeless tobacco is nitrosamines. Theses are formed during growing, forming and aging of tobacco.

Chewing tobacco causes irritation of mucous layer on oral cavity, staining on teeth, ulcers on mouth and tongue. It not only causes oral cancer but also oesophagus, pancreatic cancer.

The risk of oral cancer is more in people chewing tobacco or using snuff than those who do not use tobacco products. The risk of oral cancer depends on the frequency of smokeless tobacco usage. Quitting of usage, gradually decreases the risk of oral cancer.

Note that all tobacco products carry the risk of oral cancer. Avoid using tobacco products to reduce the risk of oral cancer and also dental problems.
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Importance of Bone Regeneration to Protect Your Teeth and Tissue

Bone regeneration
Bone regeneration is necessary for the people who are in the advanced stages of gum diseases where the bone loss occurs and can’t be regenerated by its own. In the early stages of the disease, the dentist can use small techniques like scaling or root planning to remove the tartar and avoid gum diseases but if the bone is lost the it can’t repair or regenerate by its own – it requires jaw bone regeneration. This bone regeneration is necessary to prevent the loss of the teeth or when the dentist wants to prepare the teeth for dental implants. It is also performed for the existing teeth and soft tissues of the teeth.

Bone regeneration is also done for the people who are having the missing teeth and who are not suitable for dental implants as the dentures will make the process slow as they won’t allow the loss of bone, which makes the teeth loss. This treatments helps the patient a lot in restoring their lost bone.

There are two types of bone regeneration methods and the procedure is similar for both of the methods. Even though the procedure is same, they separately concentrate on the specific parts of the teeth.

Treatment procedure
At first, the dentist will clean all the tartar over the teeth and below the gum line. Here bio compatible membranes are placed between the teeth, which act as a membrane and this prevents the gum to grow and also allows for the new bone growth.
First method, Guided bone regeneration method (GBR) is used for regeneration of the bone that can support the dental implants i.e., fake teeth and prevents the teeth from loss.

Second method, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). This method more concentrates of the tissues rather than the bone as GBR method even though they both have the same procedure. These are focused more on soft tissues of the teeth. This treatment is used for restoring the damaged parts of the teeth, bone etc.

This procedures are different from bone grafting in which it replaces the lost bone with other bone of your body. Instead here the graft strengthens by forming a bridge between the bone and itself.

This is how the dental bone regeneration is done. Dentists usually perform the bone regeneration along with bone grafting for the best benefits fro the patient. With proper care this bone regeneration takes less time to regenerate the lost bone due to gum diseases.
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