Gum disease is a condition in which inflammation of the gum tissue and the loss of bone that supports the teeth takes place. This is mainly due to the formation of plaque. The formation of plaque is called gingivitis and if it is untreated it becomes hard and spreads to all over the mouth and destruction of gum tissue leads to periodontitis.
Treatment for gum diseases
There are several ways to treat gum diseases depends on the severity. It can be treated by:
- Oral hygiene: Maintaining oral hygiene is the best way to treat gum diseases. Maintain oral hygiene by brushing twice daily, flossing regularly, using tooth paste that contains fluoride.
- Medications: Medications like antibiotics, pain killers and mouth washes are used to treat gum problems along with surgery or cleaning methods.
- Antibiotics: Antibiotics are available in tablet and gel forms. Antibiotics like metronidazole and amoxycillin are recommended for short term treatment of gum diseases. Antibiotic gels are used to apply over the gums after root planning and deep scaling.
- Pain killers: Pain killers like paracetamol and ibuprofen are recommended to reduce pain.
- Mouth washes: Mouth washes containing chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide are used to rinse mouth. Some mouth washes need to be diluted with water before rinsing mouth.
- Deep cleaning methods: Plaque and tartar is removed by the dentist using deep cleaning method. The methods include deep scaling and root planning. Scaling means scraping the tartar on the teeth and then polishes the teeth. Root planning is deep cleaning under the gums to avoid bacterial growth. Local anesthesia is given to numb the area. Loss of blood, swelling for sometime, discomfort takes place in deep cleaning method. This can be avoided by using laser to remove plaque and tartar.
- Surgical treatment: Gum diseases can be treated by surgery if the problem is severe. Surgery is done to reduce the deep pockets below the gum line. The surgical treatments include, flap surgery and bone and tissue grafting.
- Flap surgery: In flap surgery, the infected gum tissue is removed and repositioned and shaping of the gum tissue to support teeth. The surgical procedure vary depending on the severity of gum disease. In this the gum tissue is lifted up from the teeth and cleans the bone to remove plaque and then positioned in the place and sutured to minimize the pocket depth.
- Bone and tissue grafting: This method is used to regenerate the lost gum tissue and bone which supports the teeth. In bone grafting, the lost bone is replaced with artificial or natural bone. Guided tissue regeneration is a technique used along with bone grafting. In this a small mesh like material is placed between the bone and gum tissue and allows the tissue to grow along with the bone. In tissue grafting, the lost tissue is replaced with the tissue taken from the other parts of the mouth or synthetic material is used to cover the exposed teeth.
Bone regeneration is necessary for the people who are in the advanced stages of gum diseases where the bone loss occurs and can’t be regenerated by its own. In the early stages of the disease, the dentist can use small techniques like scaling or root planning to remove the tartar and avoid gum diseases but if the bone is lost the it can’t repair or regenerate by its own – it requires jaw bone regeneration. This bone regeneration is necessary to prevent the loss of the teeth or when the dentist wants to prepare the teeth for dental implants. It is also performed for the existing teeth and soft tissues of the teeth.
Bone regeneration is also done for the people who are having the missing teeth and who are not suitable for dental implants as the dentures will make the process slow as they won’t allow the loss of bone, which makes the teeth loss. This treatments helps the patient a lot in restoring their lost bone.
There are two types of bone regeneration methods and the procedure is similar for both of the methods. Even though the procedure is same, they separately concentrate on the specific parts of the teeth.
At first, the dentist will clean all the tartar over the teeth and below the gum line. Here bio compatible membranes are placed between the teeth, which act as a membrane and this prevents the gum to grow and also allows for the new bone growth.
First method, Guided bone regeneration method (GBR) is used for regeneration of the bone that can support the dental implants i.e., fake teeth and prevents the teeth from loss.
Second method, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). This method more concentrates of the tissues rather than the bone as GBR method even though they both have the same procedure. These are focused more on soft tissues of the teeth. This treatment is used for restoring the damaged parts of the teeth, bone etc.
This procedures are different from bone grafting in which it replaces the lost bone with other bone of your body. Instead here the graft strengthens by forming a bridge between the bone and itself.
This is how the dental bone regeneration is done. Dentists usually perform the bone regeneration along with bone grafting for the best benefits fro the patient. With proper care this bone regeneration takes less time to regenerate the lost bone due to gum diseases.
Crown lengthening treatment is performed to improve health conditions of gum tissues. The treatment can be performed to re-shape and re-counter bone or gum tissues on a single or multiple teeth or entire gum line.
Benefits of crown lengthening
- Crown lengthening is done to restore the damaged teeth and broken teeth that are effected with periodontal diseases like tooth decay.
- Removing extra gum tissues will give a healthy and balanced look and also improves the appearance of your smile.
- Dental crowns will not damage your teeth from gum tissues and bone after placing.
How crown lengthening is performed?
- Once you visit your dentist he will take some x-rays of your teeth and prepare some report to review your teeth condition.
- Next he will give you the appointment for the crown lengthening treatment.
- During the treatment you will be given anesthesia.
- After all the teeth are exposed, the area will be washed using sterile salt water then stitches are made on the gums.
- After healing of the gum tissues you must visit the dentist for final crowns or filling.
After the treatment when your are in conscious stage you would feel some pain as it is a surgical treatment and as the gum tissues are removed.
Dentist will give you some precautions to get relief from the pain. You will be asked to follow healthy diet by your dentist and brushing to be done on teeth avoiding gums. If you want to remove the food particles from your mouth then you must use tooth pick.
Risks involved in crown lengthening procedure:
- There is a chance of bleeding in the area where surgery is performed.
- Infections may develop after the treatment.
- As teeth roots are exposed there will be sensitivity problems when you eat cold and hot foods.
- Due to the removal of the tissue and bone, the teeth may look longer compared to the adjacent teeth
Crown lengthening helps your crowns look healthy but the procedure is complicated as it takes months to complete the entire procedure.
What is a mouth guard?
A mouth guard helps protect the teeth, lips and other parts of the mouth from injuries like broken teeth. It is an adjustable device made of a class of plastic. Mouth guards a are also known as mouth protectors.
Who should use the mouth guard?
Mostly Athletes and the people who are in recreation activities use the mouth guards. This is mostly used at the time of playing variety of sports.
Ex: People who play foot ball, amateur boxing, field hockey, ice hockey etc use these mouth guards
Functions or Uses of Mouth Guard:
- It prevents the injuries like fractures in the jaw, neck, cerebral hemorrhages.
- Upper and lower teeth are protected from the seismic contact
- They act as a shock absorbers between the jaws of the upper and lower teeth
- Using this mouth guards athletes feel comfort and confident because of the protection
- Used to reduce the pain caused in temporomandibular joint
- It also acts as a night protector.
- While bleaching teeth, mouth guard helps a lot.
- A king of mouth guard is used for acrylic plates and brackets which is a substitute.
- It can be used to provide topical medication for the diseases such as gingivitis diseases.
- Wearing the mouth guard in the practice of games makes feel better during the match.
Types of mouth guards:
Three types of mouth guards are available in the market:
1. Custom fitted mouth guards
2. Boil and bite mouth guards
3. Ready made or stock mouth guards
Custom fitted mouth guards:
Custom fitted type of mouth guards are professionally made by the dentists in laboratories by taking the impressions of the teeth and then molded using a special material. After the mouth guard is ready it is kept in hot water and placed in mouth and shaped over the teeth using fingers. These are the mostly preferred guards used by most of the people.
Boil and bite mouth guards:
These are the thermo-plastic materials made of ethylene-vinyl acetate, and are available in many shapes that fit the users mouth very closely. This mouth guards are heated and then molded to fit the jaws of the users mouth. Boil and Bite mouth guards are mostly used by the semi-professional players and the amateur. Some of the boil and bite mouth guards are available but comforts less when compared to custom fitted ones.
Ready made or stock mouth guards:
Stock mouth guards will be available ready made in the shop which are of low cost but makes in-comfort in talking. So, this is not preferred by most of the people.
How to use a mouth guard?
- After a use rinse the mouth guard with the water
- Use the tooth paste to your mouth guard and brush it once or twice a day
- Never leave it hot water or else sun light
- Keep the mouth guard in a container which is firm
- If the mouth guard is having the damages change it time to time
This is how the mouth guard helps you to protect your teeth from being damaged.
Are you looking to correct your fracture teeth? Then, you may be a need to undergo dental bonding. It is a best choice for candidates with chipped or fractured tooth to reshape as before. It is a branch of cosmetic dentistry. It is an alternative technique to Amalgamate filling. It is long lasting as it strongly bonds to the tooth enamel.
Types of dental bonding
Depending upon the number of visits for dental bonding, these are of two types.
1. Simple bonding
Simple dental bonding can be completed in one day. It does not require any preparation.
2. Complex bonding
Complex dental bonding can complete in two visits. In this dentist takes impressions of fractured tooth and takes time to prepare bonding.
How is dental bonding done?
Dental bonding is used to restore the fractured tooth, decayed tooth.
The steps involved in the process of dental bonding are:
- Dentist examines the area where bonding to be done.
- Local anesthesia is not required unless the bonding is required for decayed tooth.
- Phosphoric acid is applied on the surface of the tooth where bonding to be done to roughen the surface.
- Then thin layer of bonding material is placed on the surface of the tooth.
- A beam of ultra violet or laser light is passed to bond the resin to the surface of the tooth and several layers of resin are added and harden in turn. This takes one hour to complete.
- Once the bonding is complete, Dentist mold to the desired shape and adjustments will be made if necessary.
- Finally, the tooth is polished until its color matches the rest of the teeth.
Dental bonding is an ideal option for the following.
- Changing the shape of the teeth
- Increasing the length of the teeth
- Repairing fractured teeth
- Repairing decayed tooth
- Repairing cracked and chipped teeth
- Bonding the gap between teeth
- Removing stains on teeth
Benefits of dental bonding
- It improves the appearance of teeth
- It is economical
- Durable and long lasting
- Compared to other techniques, dental bonding does not require anesthesia
- Can complete in a single visit.
- Not resistant to stains
- In some cases, the bonding material may chip or break.
As the advantages of dental bonding overcome the disadvantages, dentist prefer this for candidates who wants to repair fractured or cracked teeth.