In landscape gardening an overall visual effect is required, usually to improve dwellings, public buildings, and monuments and to integrate and smarten parks, playgrounds, and fairgrounds.Ornamental gardening and landscape gardening are come from ancient time. The Egyptians built proper walled gardens and Mesopotamians constructed Hanging Gardens of Babylon previous it was one of the seven wonderful places in the world. The Persians were especially skilled in using water for decorative effects. In the East the planting of holy groves was spread by the Buddhists from India to China and set a style there for naturalistic gardens, in which the beauty of the natural scenery was accentuated by distributing plants so as to allow them free growth and set off their colors and fragrances to best advantage. And the Japanese art of bonsai gave rise to the unique miniature gardens and dish gardens.
In the Roman Empire the Europe landscape gardening was highly developed, first formal gardens, often terraced and adorned with statuary and fountains, were designed by architects. The Crusaders brought back from the East new gardening techniques that gave great momentum to horticulture in Western Europe. In the 18th century England inaugurated a revival of the naturalistic trend under such leaders as William Kent, Capability Brown, and Humphrey Repton. In the 19th century brought partial reversion to formal landscaping and an interest in horticulture as well as in design. American landscape artists generally followed the example of the English masters. Landscaping, especially of public parks and buildings, was stimulated by the work of A. J. Downing, Calvert Vaux, and F. L. Olmsted and his son. Today landscape gardening stresses practical as well as aesthetic design, selecting from a wealth of gardening traditions and emphasizing casual, naturalistic effects.